, private sector contracts, food safety. they will have to squeeze money out of all of those areas, fbi, fema. food assistance, education grants. they will be taking a hatchet and just cutting programs so that they can abide by the law, the law to cut all of these costs. >> those look like the obvious big chunks. when you go to another chunk and that is research and development. can you sort of outline for me what sort of a tipping point is that? >> so a lot of people who follow science and innovation are concerned. if we are going to lead into the next century we have to maintain our innovative edge. the fiscal cliff will mean big cuts to federally funded research. and this is the way one of the industry groups has looked at this. 200,000 job cuts by next year. the cost of gdp could be $860 billion. so what does that mean? how much is that? if you look at the low end of estimates for what the economy will be hurt, how badly hurt by just cuts it is six months of new vehicle perches, two years of airline travel, six years of professional sporting events. that is the impact it would have.